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1 DAILY NEWS BULLETIN LEADING HEALTH, POPULATION AND FAMILY WELFARE STORIES OF THE DAY Wednesday क प षण ब च म क प षण क आखर य ह वजह और क स कर इस द र, ज न यह (Dainik Jagran: ) html बच म क प षण क ग भ र भ व ह त ह इस समय द श क लगभग 40!तशत बच क प षण स "#त ह त इनक प छ क& वजह क ज नकर उ)ह द र करन क& क +शश कर ब,य व#थ (5 स 12 स ल क& उ. व ल बच ) श र/0रक और म न+सक 2वक स क& मह3वप ण4 अव#थ एव #व#थ वय#क ज वन क& न व ह इस अव#थ म क प षण क ग भ र अ,पक +लक एव द/घ4क +लक भ व ह त ह इस समय द श क लगभग 40!तशत बच क प षण स "#त ह ज9र/ ह प षक त3व सभ आय वग4 क ;य =तय क +लए प षक त3व क मह3व ह, ल >कन ब,य व#थ म इनक 2वश ष मह3व ह हम र ड इट म म ज द )य BCशन अन क क र क& >फ जकल ए =ट2वट/ क +लए ज9र/ ह त ह इस+लए आपक पत ह न च Bहए >क >कस तरह क ख नप न हम र +लए फ यद म द ह और क न स न कस नद यक

2 क रण क समझ पय 4Gत म H म प षक त3व क क फ& Bदन तक न +मल प न क प षण क म Iय क रण ह म ज द द र म प र प0रक भ जन बच क कम अछ लग रह ह व 2पJज, न ड,स और अ)य फ #टफ Kस क प र प0रक भ जन क& त लन म Jय द वर/यत द रह ह बच समय पर न Lत नह/ करत, जसस शर/र पर खर ब असर पड़त ह प र प0रक भ जन बच क +लए उपय =त ह प र प0रक भ जन म द ल, स Nजय, स ब त अन ज स!न+म4त र ट/ और सल द आBद क श +मल >कय गय ह इन Bदन एक बड़ स Iय म बच क,ड OP =स प रह ह क,ड OP क क& एक ब तल बच क& Bदन क& ऊज 4 आवLयकत क 15!तशत त प र कर द त ह पर उसम प षक पद थ4नह/ ह त ह सम ध न बच म प र प0रक एव #व#थ आह र क बढ़ व द न च Bहए स त +लत व!नय+मत भ जन क& उपलNधत मह3वप ण4 ह भ जन म हर/ स Nजय एव फल क उपय ग स म इT )य C/ए ट क& क+मय स बच ज सकत ह श र/0रक 2वक स क +लए उUचत म H म ट/न क य ग ह न च Bहए अ+भभ वक बच क समझ ए >क ज क फ Kस और क,ड OP =स #व #Vय पर खर ब असर ड लत ह बच क अगर फ #ट फ Kस ल न ह/ ह,त उ)ह इसक 15 Bदन म एक ब र स वन करन च Bहए #क ल म ह म Oडकल ज च बच क #व #Vय क स दभ4 म #क ल म!तवष4 म Oडकल ज च ह न च Bहए त >क क प षण स "#त बच क समय रहत पत लग य ज सक क प षण र WC क 2वक स क म Iय अवर धक ह सरक र, 2वXय लय, ग र सरक र/ स #थ ओ एव म Oडय क +मलकर इस स ब ध म बच और हर आय वग4 क ल ग क ज ग9क करन च Bहए तभ प 2षत इ Oडय ह/ >फट इ Oडय बन सकत ह

3 " #नस " #नस क वत प र &सट म ल (Paracetamol) ख न स ब च क ह सकत ह अ*थम, श धकत.ओ न द0 च त वन (Dainik Jagran: ) Z[ट न क Z[#टल 2वLव2वXय लय Xव र >कए गए एक अ\ययन क म त Zबक व मBहल ए, ज गभ 4व#थ क द र न प र +सट म ल क य ग करत ह उनक ह न व ल बच म ;यवह र स ब ध सम#य ओ क ह न क खतर रहत ह व मBहल ए, ज गभ 4व#थ क द र न प र +सट म ल क य ग करत ह उनक ह न व ल बच म ;यवह र स ब ध सम#य ओ क ह न क खतर रहत ह श धकत 4ओ न गभ4वत मBहल ओ और उनक सग - स ब Uधय क इस ब त क& च त वन द/ ह जन4ल प Oडय BCक ए ड प 0रयनटल ए2पड +मल ज म क +शत अ\ययन म गभ 4व#थ क ब च प र +सट म ल ल न और छह मह/न स ल कर 11 स ल क& उ. क ब च बच क बत 4व क स थ 17 स ल क& उ. तक उसक& म म र/ और आई=य ट #ट पर पड़न व ल भ व क& ज च क& गई Z[ट न क Z[#टल 2वLव2वXय लय क& फ सर और अ\ययन क& म Iय ल खक ज न ग,ड ग न कह, ''हम र!नWकष4 गभ 4व#थ क द र न प र +सट म ल ल न क स भ 2वत!तक ल भ व स स ब Uधत सब त म और इज फ करत ह गभ 4व#थ क द र न प र +सट म ल ल न स बच म अ#थम और उनक ;यवह र स स ब Uधत सम#य ए प द ह सकत ह '' ग,ड ग न कह, ''हम र!नWकष4 मBहल ओ क गभ 4व#थ क द र न दव ईय ल न क!त सजग रहन क& सल ह पर ज र द त ह इसक स थ ह/ उ)ह जह ड =टर क& सल ह क& ज9रत ह, वह उनस सल ह ज9र करन च Bहए '' श धकत 4ओ न Z[#टल Uच,Pन स Gत #क ल/ ज नक र/ और सव ल-जव ब क य ग करत ह ए 14,000 बच क ;यवह र क& ज च क& और उनक& म त ओ स क छ सव ल-जव ब >कए

4 अ\ययन क म त Zबक, 43 फ&सद/ बच क& म त ओ न बत य >क जब वह स त मह/न क& गभ4वत थ त उ)हन 2पछल त न मह/न क द र न अ=सर य >फर कभ -कभ र प र +सट म ल क& ग +लय ख ई थ श धकत 4ओ न बच क& य दद Lत, आई=य, -#क ल ड व लपमट ट #ट और उनक ;यवह र क तर/क क प0रण म क& सम _ क& अ\ययन म प र +सट म ल ल न और बच म ह इपरए=ट/2वट/ व \य न न द न स ब ध 2वक र सBहत कई अ)य ;यवह र सम#य ओ क ब च एक स ब ध प य गय ह ल >क यह अ\ययन इमर/ #क ल क सम Gत ह न तक बच पर >कय गय थ श धकत 4ओ क म त Zबक, प र +सट म ल क ;यवह र स ब ध भ व लड़>कय क& त लन म लड़क पर अUधक ह आ ग,ड ग क कहन ह >क यह ज9र/ ह >क हम र!नWकष4 अ)य अ\ययन म भ ज च ज ए हम इस #थ!त म नह/ ह >क द न क ब च >कस स ब ध क Bदख ए ब,क हमन द न क प0रण म क ब च स ब ध क दश 4य ह

5 Ayushman Bharat Yojana (Navbharat Times: )

6 Weight (Navbharat Times: )

7 अ1ज इमर अ1ज इमर क 2र*क कम करत ह ऐर 4बस एसस.इज (Navbharat Times: ) ऐर Zब=स ए=सस 4इज बड़ उ. म य द Lत क द a#त बन ए रखन म मददग र ह सकत ह यह ब त ह ल ह/ ह ई एक #टड म स मन आई #टड म यह भ पत चल >क #C Uच ग भ Bदम ग क उस Bह#स क ऐ =टव रखन म मदद करत ह, ज हम र/ य द क सह जत ह सGत ह म 5 Bदन और हर र ज आध घ ट ऐर Zब=स करन उन वय#क ल ग क +लए अ,ज मर क 0र#क कम करन व ल य इस र ग क& ग!त क ध म करन व ल ह सकत ह, जनक इस ब म र/ क& Uगरbत म आन क& स भ वन बह त अUधक ह अ,ज इमर र ग स स ब Uधत जन4ल म म गलव र क क +शत एक #टड म यह ब त कह/ गई य ट/ स उथव #टन4म Oडकल सटर म )य र लज क फ सर और इस 0रसच4 क ह ड रग झ ग क अन स र, अ,ज मर क ह ई 0र#क पर पह च च क प श ट य य द Lत स स ब Uधत सम#य क सम न करन व ल वय#क और व d म म #तWक क& स रचन, क य4 और अम इल इड बड4न पर ;य य म क भ व क आकलन करन क +लए यह पहल रडम इJड क C ल C यल >कय गय ह इस अ\ययन म 55 स ल क& उ. और इसस अUधक उ. क 70 ल ग क श +मल >कय गय, जनम अ,ज मर Oडज ज क ह ई 0र#क थ इ)ह प र 12 मह/न तक ऐर Zब=स और #C Uच ग कर ई गई ऐस ह/ सम#य स ज झ रह अ)य ल ग क स थ पर/_ण म श +मल ल ग क अ\ययन करन पर स मन आय >क एर Zब=स और #C Uच ग क असर [ न पर इस तरह क म करत ह >क ल ग म अ,ज मर क खतर बढ़न क& ग!त य त ब द ह ज त ह य ध म ह ज त ह ह ल >क यह ब त भ #टड म पत चल/ >क #C Uच ग क म क बल एर Zब=स Jय द भ वश ल ह =य>क #C Uच ग क& त लन म एर Zब=स Bहप कपस +सक ड़न क कम करन पर अUधक क म करत ह Bहप कपस Bदम ग क वह Bह#स ह ज T +शयल म म र/ज क सह जकर रखत ह

8 Dengue (Hindustan: ) _0_i_1_sf.html

9 Diabetes (Hindustan: ) _18_i_1_sf.html Mental Health (Hindustan: )

10 2019_18_i_1_sf.html

11 Child Health (Hindustan: ) _18_i_1_sf.html Dwarf (Hindustan: ) _10_i_1_sf.html

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13 Sanitation Gates: India exemplar in sanitation (Hindustan Times: ) India exemplar in using sanitation, digital tech to better lives: Bill Gates NEW DELHI: Bill Gates explained the logic for deciding to award Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi at the Goalkeepers Global Goals Awards on September 24 and 25, a decision that has been opposed by some people over developments in Jammu & Kashmir it was a move influenced by the fact that the Modi government has worked to provide sanitation to at least 500 million people. Sanitation was chosen because in a lot of countries, it s not discussed, it s an almost hidden thing. The poor quality of life and the number of disease caused by poor sanitation are terrible and yet a lot of governments are unwilling to talk about it because it isn t easy to fix and it takes time. India, over the last five years, has allocated resources and really talked about the need to clean up. India is an exemplar on this and so it s very appropriate to have an award for something that is not as visible as vaccine coverage, said Bill Gates in an exclusive interview, explaining the rationale for the award. The announcement of the award, welcomed in most quarters in India, has prompted the delivery of a petition with around signatures at the Gates Foundation s Seattle HQ, an op-ed in the Washinton Post, and two actors pulling out from the event in New York next week. In a statement, the Gates Foundation has said that while it respects other views, the award recognises Modi s contribution to providing 500 million people safer sanitation. We work on the specific issues where we believe we can have the greatest impact for the world s poorest, the Gates Foundation statement said. No easy fix to sanitation woes, India an exemplar (Hindustan Times: ) ( From left: Melinda Gates, co-founder of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, with her husband and Microsoft founder Bill Gates during their visit to a village at Patna, Bihar, on March 23, AFP file

14 Bill Gates speaks on why the Gates Foundation is awarding Prime Minister Narendra Modi for improving sanitation at the Goalkeepers Global Goals Awards in New York on September 25 and 26. And why toilets, vaccination, gender equity and ending poverty are the highest priorities on the to-do list of the Microsoft founder and the world s second richest person, who has a real-time net worth of $105.4B, according to Forbes. Edited excerpts: Why is Prime Minister Modi being awarded for sanitation over other initiatives, like universal immunisation and Ujjwala (cooking gas for the poor)? The vaccination improvements in India are quite fantastic and we have congratulated the government, they re definitely on the right track there. Sanitation was chosen because in a lot of countries, it is not discussed, it s an almost hidden thing. The quality of life and the number of diseases caused by poor sanitation are terrible and yet a lot of governments are unwilling to talk about it because it isn t easy to fix and it takes time. It s a topic people just don t want to talk about. India, over the last five years, has allocated resources and really talked about the need to clean up. We have a lot of innovative approaches on which we ve partnered with government [in India] because in the sanitation area, there is always a challenge of quality. People don t use toilets that are not maintained. India is an exemplar on this and so it s very appropriate to have an award for something that is not as visible as vaccine coverage. Goalkeepers 2019 focuses on inequalities of geography and gender. What is the bigger driver of inequality and how can it be removed? The gender differences are quite stark both in health and education, with the actual ranking being different country by country. In villages in India, a lot has been done by women s groups, who get together for a variety of purposes such as savings activities, educating each other about health behaviours like prenatal care and vaccination, and to speak out as a group about the quality of education and health services available to them. Our foundation works with self-help groups and measures impact. It has worked very well. Another gender thing we ve tracked very closely is financial services, where India has made very good progress on reforms in money transactions. Women s access has gone up from 40% to over 70%. So that gap is closing quite a bit. The Gates Foundation has always focused in the parts of India with a large burden and where the health services needed the most improvement, specifically in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. And there has been improvement. With increased government resources going into these systems, the capacity is increased and the out-of-pocket expenses are not nearly as high. India is a place for some very good examples of what s been achieved. For example, in the vaccine area, India has countrywide adoption of the new vaccines, we have the second measles dose and the actual execution of that s been pretty good. And that s why the childhood deaths continue to come down. Can the world meet any of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030?

15 Yes. It s quite amazing how the child death rates have reduced. The death rate in the 1990s was about 9 million, and last year it was about 5 million even though there are more kids aged zero to five years old. It s fantastic that we ve got new vaccines getting to more children. We understand how to work primary health cost in a strong way. And the key point we re making at Goalkeepers is that some countries are doing well even with a low level of GDP on these key issues and we can learn from them. Within countries, some parts are doing a lot better (at the sub-national level), and we can learn from them. There are great achievements in some parts of India [like in Kollam district in Kerala], where 1% children die before the age of five and the majority are getting the chance to go to college. The current trend line is that we have a lot of countries and lot of districts within countries not meeting the SGDs. The SDG targets are very ambitious for the reduction of infant mortality, and the aim is to reach the specific goal as close to it as we can. We are making good progress. India should be proud of the part it has played... but there are lots of inequalities within the country. What are the key interventions that prevent maternal and child deaths? The key interventions are getting women to go to prenatal care, getting them to deliver in a facility, and making sure the quality of that facility is very good. There are a variety of things in the first 30 days, including keeping the baby warm and if the baby is not doing well, to get her back to healthcare. And then you have vaccination. When you implement all those things in a strong way, you can cut death rates and there is actually data out of India by more than a half. The hard part is often the quality of the primary healthcare service. If you take the district that does the best, you have great primary health centre, high quality training and execution. The quality is still not up to the level it needs to be, and that s where the foundation has partnered with India. We have dashboards to look at hiring, trainings and to understand why any child is still dying. Vaccine denial had led to the re-emergence of vaccine-preventable diseases, like polio and measles. How can misinformation on social media be countered? The key is [identifying] whom people trust and making sure they hear from the people they trust. Sometimes, it will be religious leaders, sometimes people in the medical profession, sometimes it will be politicians. The people with the bad information are speaking out a lot in a kind of outrageous way and the other people are not speaking up for vaccines, to explain they save more lives than any other tool that mankind has ever invented. We also need to see where the negative stuff about vaccines is coming from. Some countries ban it because it causes childhood deaths, others don t ban it. Then you just have to overwhelm it [rumours] with correct information. India s JAM trinity Jan Dhan Yojana for bank accounts, Aadhaar for unique ID, and mobile phones is showcased in the report. Does the foundation have plans for similar projects in other countries?

16 The foundation is very involved in working with the Reserve Bank of India to create the socalled payment banks, where, because they re not making loans, the regulatory complexity is greatly reduced. That was a key reform until mobile phone companies and others came in and created a lot of competition with very, very low deals. The India work built on the experience in other countries like Kenya, which had m-paisa. Now, with the continued success in India, we do have a group that spends over a US$ 100- million a year to get a bank account for very one it the world. We have projects in Nigeria, Pakistan, we continue to do work in Tanzania, Uganda. So, we are basically taking the digital money concept to everyone in the world; we focus on poor countries. There has been incredible progress. How would you rate Ayushman Bharat-PM JAY health protection scheme in India? I m a big believer that as India is doing a better job collecting taxes, the health sector needs to be a beneficiary. And that ll be a mix of the things that you just go to the health sector and get for free, like child s delivery and vaccines, and insurance-based services, where the government wants to make it less expensive for some people. India needs to strike at the health system in both respects: stronger insurance offering and the services that should be free to everybody. The current insurance scheme, as I understand it, is of a modest scale but it s off to a good start. In terms of the overall health system, it will be important that both governmentsubsidised and purely private insurance options are merged to provide for health needs that go beyond basic services. Prime Minister Modi recently launched the Fit India campaign to promote physical activity. What do you do to stay fit? Any yoga? No, my wife (Melinda Gates) does yoga. I exercise a fair bit. I play quite a bit of tennis. Even when I took a vacation in India in Rajasthan, I got to play. I m lucky I enjoy playing tennis and it s not a chore for me, and I hope I can keep playing for decades to come. I do specific exercises to keep myself fit three or four times a week and then I play tennis a couple of times a week. You travel a lot. Do you take every recommended vaccine before travel? I absolutely do. No one promotes vaccines more than I do.

17 Dementia (The Asian Age: )

18 Climate Change (The Asian Age: ) Women Health The importance of 'sport-related hobbies' for middle aged women (Medical News Today: ) Leisure time physical activity improves the blood lipid profile, a marker of cardiovascular risk, of postmenopausal women. Sports-related hobbies are vital for the heart health of postmenopausal women. This is the main takeaway of a new study that appears in the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology.

19 Sira Karvinen a postdoctoral researcher from the Gerontology Research Center at the Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, at the University of Jyväskylä in Finland is the first and corresponding author of the study. As Karvinen and colleagues explain in their paper, cardiovascular risk increases significantly and rapidly after the onset of menopause. A person's lipid profile comprising their total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, and fasting blood sugar levels is a good marker of their cardiovascular health. Menopause, the study authors explain, is associated with "unfavorable changes in lipid metabolism leading to an increased likelihood of developing metabolic syndrome and [cardiovascular disease]." Researchers tend to agree on the above, just as they do on the notion that leisure time physical activity protects against cardiovascular disease. However, there is less agreement regarding the relationship between leisure time physical activity, lipid profile changes, and cardiovascular risk after menopause. So, Karvinen and her team set out to investigate 193 women who had enrolled in the Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study. This is a cohort study of women ages 'Sport-related hobbies' crucial in middle age Study co-author Dr. Matthew Jergenson, from the University of Minnesota Medical School in Minneapolis, explains the motivation for the study. He says, "It is well known that physical activity has health benefits, yet it is less clear to what extent physical activity can prevent the negative changes seen in blood lipid profiles during the menopausal transition." "The present study," he adds, "examined menopausal women in the city of Jyväskylä, Finland, to explore the role of leisure time physical activity on [cardiovascular] risk factors." Estrogen, vitamin D may protect metabolic health after menopause Yet more evidence of vitamin D's and estrogen's benefits for postmenopausal women. The team used both questionnaires and accelerometers to monitor the women's levels of physical activity in general, and their leisure time physical activity levels in particular. According to some definitions, leisure time physical activity describes "exercise, sports, or recreation that is not related to regular work, housework, or transport activities."

20 The researchers found a link between higher levels of leisure time physical activity and lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL ("bad") cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose. They also found a link with higher levels of HDL ("good") cholesterol. "Based on our findings, leisure time physical activity was associated with a healthier blood lipid profile," reports Karvinen. However, the authors note that the positive changes in lipid profile are not enough to fully counter the negative changes in lipid profile that menopause often brings. "[A]dvancing menopausal status predicted a less healthy lipid profile, suggesting that leisure time physical activity does not entirely offset the unfavorable lipid profile changes associated with the menopausal transition," explains Karvinen. "However, leisure time physical activity may attenuate the unfavorable atherogenic changes in the serum [cardiovascular] risk factors of healthy middle aged women," add the authors. "Hence one should not forget sport-related hobbies at middle age." Strengths and limitations of the study The study authors also lay out some strengths and limitations to their work. For example, they note that using the ERMA study is one strength, as the research is a "comprehensive cohort study" that specifically looks at postmenopausal changes. The ERMA study used bleeding diaries and serum follice stimulating hormone levels, rather than just the participants' self-reporting, to assess the women's menopausal status. The team also used comprehensive questionnaires, labotory tests, and physical measurements to assess the participants' cardiovascular risks. The low discontinuation rates, as well as the larger number of participants compared with other studies that have addressed the same issues, are further strengths of the study. The clinical relevance of the research, however, is somewhat limited. This is due to the fact that the team did not account for outcomes such as cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality, or all-cause mortality. Furthermore, the study population was homogeneous; every woman was white. For this reason, the results may not apply to women of other ethnicities. They may also not apply to women with reduced access to healthcare.

21 Prostate Cancer New prostate cancer blood test could reduce biopsies (Medical News Today: ) A new blood test that looks for circulating tumor cells could significantly improve the diagnosis of prostate cancer and avoid unnecessary biopsies and treatments. A new blood test could help many people at risk of prostate cancer avoid unnecessary biopsies. Combining the new test with prostate specific antigen (PSA) results can yield a diagnosis of aggressive prostate cancer that is more than 90% accurate, according to a Journal of Urology study. This level of accuracy is higher than that of any other biomarker for prostate cancer, says senior and corresponding study author Dr. Yong-Jie Lu, a professor of molecular oncology at the Barts Cancer Institute of Queen Mary University of London in the United Kingdom. "This could lead to a paradigm shift in the way we diagnose prostate cancer," he adds. Circulating tumor cells are cancer cells that have left the original tumor and entered the bloodstream. Once cancer cells are in the bloodstream, they can spread to other parts of the body. PSA test not enough to diagnose cancer PSA is a protein that the prostate produces. If there is cancer in the prostate, the gland releases more PSA into the blood. Therefore, raised levels of PSA in the blood can be a sign of prostate cancer. However, other prostate conditions, such as inflammation or noncancerous enlargement of the gland, can also raise PSA levels. So, to confirm the presence of cancer, the individual undergoes a biopsy, an uncomfortable procedure in which the surgeon removes pieces of the prostate and sends them for tissue analysis. A biopsy of the prostate is not only invasive but also risky, with a high chance of bleeding and infection. Also, the biopsy results of most men with raised PSA levels show that they do not have cancer.

22 Even when prostate biopsies do reveal the presence of cancer, in most cases, the tumor is not aggressive and will not be fatal if doctors leave it untreated. Prostate cancer: Scientists reveal new way to target stubborn cells Use of cyclic peptoids to target tumor cells that are hard to reach holds promise as a future treatment for prostate cancer. Need for a test better than PSA and biopsy The current method of diagnosing prostate cancer by combining the PSA test with a biopsy leads to many pointless biopsies, over-diagnoses, and unnecessary treatments. Such a method can cause harm to individuals and waste precious time and resources in the healthcare system. "There is clearly a need for better selection of patients to undergo the biopsy procedure," Prof. Lu urges. For the study, he and his colleagues carried out the new blood test in 98 males who had not yet had a biopsy and 155 others who had just received a diagnosis of prostate cancer but not yet undergone treatment. All the participants were attending St Bartholomew's Hospital in London. The researchers saw that the presence of circulating tumor cells in the prebiopsy blood samples was predictive of aggressive prostate cancer that subsequent biopsies detected. In addition, from the level of circulating tumor cells, the team was able to assess the aggressiveness of the cancer. When combined with the PSA test, the circulating tumor cell test was able to predict with 90% accuracy, which men would receive an aggressive prostate cancer diagnosis from biopsy results. Test ready 3 5 years after validation Further studies using results from several independent centers should now confirm these findings, note the researchers. The team expects the test to be available, following regulatory approval, around 3 5 years after researchers have completed validation studies. Around 1 in 9 men will have prostate cancer during their lifetime, according to the American Cancer Society (ACS). The ACS estimate that more than 174,000 men will find out that they have prostate cancer and 31,620 will die of it in the United States during 2019.

23 Although it is a serious disease, most men who have prostate cancer do not die of it. There are more than 3.1 million men alive in the U.S. today who have received a diagnosis of prostate cancer. "Testing for circulating tumor cells is efficient, noninvasive, and potentially accurate, and we've now demonstrated its potential to improve the current standard of care." Prof. Yong-Jie Lu Cancer Scientists discover the structure of cancer molecule (Medical News Today: ) Alternative splicing is a complex but insufficiently understood process. It is crucial to the production of proteins necessary to cell health. Researchers now believe that cancer cells also use this process to their own advantage. Research uncovers new information about a mechanism that cancer may 'hijack.' Proteins are large molecules that are absolutely crucial to the health of every single cell in the human body. However, the processes that determine which, and how many, proteins are available to a cell are complex. In fact, researchers are still studying how some of these processes work. One such process is alternative splicing, which gives cells access to a diverse range of proteins that originate from the same genetic source code but also serves different purposes within the cell, thereby ensuring its health. However, when alternative splicing malfunctions, it can contribute to cancer's growth, spread, and ability to develop resistance to chemotherapy. Many researchers believe that by regulating alternative splicing, they could find a way to improve cancer therapies. Yet they still do not fully understand how this complex process works.

24 Now, researchers from the Institute of Cancer Research in London, United Kingdom, have made fresh discoveries about the structure and function of DHX8. This is a molecule that plays an important role in alternative splicing, and its activity could help explain how cancer can hijack this vital process and use it for its own benefit. "It is estimated that [around] 95% of human genes are alternatively spliced," the study authors explain. "Under normal conditions," they add, "alternative splicing is tightly regulated, but changes in alternative splicing are increasingly linked to a variety of human diseases, and in particular to cancer." Their paper now features in the Biochemical Journal. 'Exciting new avenues for cancer treatment' DHX8 plays a role in the final step of splicing, in which genetic information is decoded, and it leads to the production of the diverse forms of protein. In their research, the scientists explore how human DHX8 performs this feat. They also describe its structure and what function this structure serves. Cancer is now the leading cause of death in wealthy countries Cancer now causes more deaths than any other condition in the world's wealthiest nations. Until now, scientists had a limited understanding of certain regions of DHX8's structure, including the "DEAH motif," the "hook loop," and the "hook turn." Now, however, the team has succeeded in uncovering more information about how they work. "Our study has shed new light on the structure and function of a crucial protein involved in the process of alternative splicing, in which genetic information is mixed and matched to create multiple protein molecules from a single gene," says lead study author Rob van Montfort, Ph.D. The researchers' findings, he believes, could lead to the development of more effective anticancer therapies in the future. "Cancer cells," he says, "take advantage of alternative splicing to diversify, evolve, and escape the body's regulatory mechanisms." "By determining the detailed molecular structure of one of the key protein molecules involved in alternative splicing, we have opened up potentially exciting new avenues for cancer treatment." Rob van Montfort, Ph.D. Going forward, the researchers plan to look at how DHX8 might contribute to rendering cancer more difficult to treat. In doing so, they hope to find a way of blocking DHX8 or similar molecules. This, they suggest, could be a promising strategy against cancer's spread and its resistance to therapeutic drugs.

25 "We are excited to study these 'mix and match' proteins further, because we think our findings open up a new route to help block cancer's evolutionary pathways, and potentially overcome drug resistance," notes study co-author Prof. Paul Workman. Emily Farthing, a research information manager at Cancer Research UK a cancer research and awareness charity that supported the recent research also comments on the new possibilities that this study has opened up. "This research provides valuable information about how cancer cells hijack a process in our cells to make them more diverse and enables them to evade treatment. Although more work is needed to build on these findings, this research could open up the possibility of novel cancer therapies in the future," she says. Pain NHS reveals 20 most painful health conditions a person can have (New Kerala: ) London, Sept 17 : Pain is never a pleasant thing to experience. It is hard to ignore and chronic pain in specific can end up having a psychological impact, affecting a person's mental as well as physical health. A list by the National Health Service (NHS) has revealed the 20 most painful health conditions to live with, ranging from cluster headaches to shingles, reported MyLondon. Each illness in the list causes pain so debilitating that it can prevent the sufferers from performing their day-to-day activities. Here's a list of those 20 excruciating illnesses. The list is in no particular order of severity of the pain or the seriousness of the condition. Cluster headaches - Often felt around the eye, these are excruciating attacks of pain which emerge on one side of the head. They are considered to be one of the most painful types of headache.

26 They tend to begin quickly without any sign, with the severe pain often described as a burning sensation. 'Hardly anyone' has heard of the condition, according to the cluster headache charity OUCH (UK). Most people afflicted with this "devastating" illness are struggling on alone and isolated with their pain. Shingles - Ever heard of herpes zoster? Better known as shingles, it is an infection of a nerve and the skin around it which affects a particular area on one side of the body. The most common symptom is a painful rash that develops into itchy blisters which contain particles of the virus. The devastating attack of shingles usually lasts between two and four weeks, but 20 per cent of the sufferers go on to develop nerve pain in the affected area of skin. The pain caused by the illness can be severe and last for several months. The infection can occur at any age, but is most common in people over the age of 70. Frozen shoulder-- This means your shoulder is painful and stiff for months, sometimes even years. According to the NHS, it means the joint can become so stiff that it is virtually impossible to carry out simple movements, such as raising your arm or picking up something. It is not unknown as to what causes frozen shoulder but it can happen after a shoulder or arm injury, and is more common in people suffering from diabetes. Heart attack -- It is life-threatening and sees the heart muscle starved of oxygen-rich blood. Most of the attacks occur when the arteries narrow and fill up with fatty materials which prevent blood from flowing properly. Smoking and leading an unhealthy lifestyle are major contributors for heart attacks, so regular exercise and maintaining a good diet are vital for everyone. But some people are more prone to having an attack as heart disease can be hereditary. The most common signs of a heart attack are - chest pain, which includes tightness, heaviness, pain or a burning feeling in your chest, pain in arms, neck, jaw, back or stomach - for some people, the pain is severe, while others just feel uncomfortable. Sweating, feeling light-headed, becoming short of breath, feeling nauseous are some of the other symptoms responsible for a heart attack. Broken bones -- Sorry for stating the obvious, but if you break a bone, it hurts. It's going to be one of the most painful things you can experience. Broken bones usually heal by themselves, but they may need to be lined up and fixed in position so they set properly. The older you are and the bigger the bone that's broken, the longer it will take to heal. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) -- Like cluster headaches, many people may not have heard of CRPS. The NHS describes it as a "poorly understood condition" in which a person experiences persistent pain.

27 Although most of the cases of CRPS are triggered by an injury, the pain is much more severe than normal. The pain is usually confined to one limb but it can sometimes spread to other parts as well. The skin of the affected part can become so sensitive that just a slight touch or even a change in temperature can provoke severe pain. Affected areas can also become swollen and stiff. Many cases of the illness gradually improve over time. However, some cases never go away, and the affected person experiences pain for many years. Slipped disc -- The NHS explained that one of the most common causes of back pain is a slipped disc. It often takes place because of a twisting or lifting related injury. One of the discs in the spine ruptures and the gel inside it leaks out. Most people with a slipped disc suffer from sudden and severe lower back pain. A slipped disc can also cause leg pain. The sufferers usually feel better by lying down and it is made worse by moving your back, coughing or sneezing. Sickle cell disease -- It is the name for a range of inherited health conditions which affect the red blood cells. A sudden episode of pain, known as a pain crisis, is one of the most common symptoms of the disease. The pain, which emerges in the bones and joints, can vary from mild to severe and last for up to a week. Some people may experience pain every few weeks, while others may have fewer episodes of pain. Arthritis -- People with this disease suffer from constant joint pain, usually in the hips, knees, wrists or fingers. The pain can come on suddenly or over time, and is often associated with muscle aches and stiffness in the joints. Migraine -- It is more than just a normal headache. Migraine is a complex disabling neurological disorder. According to the Migraine Trust, "For many people the main feature is a painful headache. Other symptoms include disturbed vision, sensitivity to light, sound and smells, feeling sick and vomiting." The symptoms may vary from person to person. The attacks may differ in length, frequency and severity. The attacks last from 4 to 72 hours and most people are free from symptoms between attacks. Sciatica - It is a back problem that affects the sciatic nerve, which is the longest nerve in the body and runs from behind the pelvis down to your feet.

28 This disease occurs if sciatic nerve becomes irritated or compressed in any way. Other symptoms include tingling sensations, a bit like pins and needles in the leg, cramp, and shooting pain that starts in the buttock region and travels down towards the foot. The pain may vary from mild to severely painful to the point where in some cases it is impossible to put any weight on the affected leg. Sciatica can affect anyone, but the younger you are, the less likely it is. Kidney stones - It is one of the most common diseases which can cause extreme pain. The NHS explained that passing a kidney stone can produce a sudden, sharp, cramping pain in your lower back or the side of your abdomen, or occasionally in your groin. The pain may last for minutes or even hours, with some pain-free intervals in between. The pain often emerges in the middle of the night. It can be extremely severe. Most kidney stones are small enough to come out in your urine, and the pain disappears once the stone has been passed. Appendicitis-- It is a painful swelling of the appendix, a small pouch attached to the gut wall. The condition is most common in children, with the pain often felt in the middle of the tummy that comes and disappears. The pain then shifts to the lower-right side of the stomach and gets progressively worse. The illness is a medical emergency that typically needs an urgent operation to remove the appendix before it bursts. Trigeminal neuralgia -- It is sudden and severe facial pain. Also known as Fothergill's disease, it involves bouts of extreme pain on one side of the face. It is described as a sharp shooting pain or like having an electric shock in the jaw, teeth or gums. The pain comes and goes unpredictably in sudden unpredictable attacks that can last from a few seconds to about two minutes. The attacks usually stop as suddenly as they begin. To date there is no cure for the condition but there are a number of treatments which can offer some relief. Endometriosis - It is a gynaecological condition where tissue similar to the lining of the womb grows in other parts of the body, most commonly in the pelvic region.this tissue responds to the hormones in the same way as the lining of the womb but, with no outlet, it may cause inflammation, scarring and adhesions, leading to severe pain. The common symptoms of the disease are severe pain during or between periods, very long, heavy and irregular periods, painful bowel movements, pain in the bladder and pain during or after sex. Extreme fatigue is also very common, and fertility may also be affected due to this illness. As of now, there is no cure for endometriosis, but the condition is manageable and timely diagnosis can save women from many years of constant pain.

29 There is no cause for the disease and the only way to determine if a woman has it is through a laparoscopy, usually done under general anaesthetic. Gout -- This condition is where swelling and severe pain develops in a joint. It is a painful rheumatic disease which causes the inflammation of the joints and often starts in the feet or toes - for 70 per cent of sufferers a joint in the big toe is the first one to be affected. Gout, which mainly affects men, aged between 40 and 60 causes acute, painful attacks of arthritis in the joints of the foot, knee, ankle, hand and wrist. Attacks can last between one and 10 days, and often involve the joint aching, swelling and becoming red, hot and painful. It can be treated through either medicine or a major change in lifestyle. Acute pancreatitis - It is the swelling of the pancreas. The most common symptom is extreme abdominal pain that occurs suddenly. The pain often gets steadily worse and can travel along your back or below your left shoulder blade.eating or drinking, especially junk foods, may also make you feel worse very quickly. Leaning forward or curling into a ball may help to relieve the sudden pain. Lying flat on your back often increases it. Stomach ulcer - It is an open sore in the lining of your stomach or your small intestine. The main cause of these ulcers is bacteria, responsible for up to 90 per cent of cases.the second most common reason is overuse of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including the commonly used ibuprofen which can irritate the stomach lining in some people. Excessive smoking or alcohol abuse can also increase the chances of developing the disease. Chronic stress can also increase the chances of developing a stomach ulcer and this, combined with the bad habits, such as irregular meal patterns and generally eating on the move, can play a major factor. In some sufferers eating can ease the pain whereas for others it makes the pain worse. Most people find that junk foods, citrus drinks and spicy food irritate the ulcer. It is vital that these types of food are avoided to reduce the chances of severe pain. Fibromyalgia -- The chronic condition causes widespread pain and fatigue.according to the Fibromyalgia Action UK, "The pain tends to be felt as diffuse aching or burning, often described as head to toe. It may be worse at some times than at others. It may also change location, usually becoming more severe in parts of the body that are used the most." "The fatigue ranges from feeling tired, to the exhaustion of a flu-like illness. It may come and go and people can suddenly feel drained of all energy - as if someone just 'pulled the plug'," the Fibromyalgia Action UK added. Pain after surgery -- It's very common to experience pain after an operation, though the intensity of the pain will vary according to the type of surgery.but enduring extreme pain after surgery is not a good thing according to the NHS.

30 Here's hoping that the NHS's list of these conditions will get the people taking them more seriously.

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