Stuart Kauffman 1 Gould(1989) 1993 The Origins of Order Stuart Kauffman NK Kauffman Kauffman 1 Beatty(1995), Rosenberg(1994), Brandon(1997), Sober(199

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1 Stuart Kauffman 1 Gould(1989) 1993 The Origins of Order Stuart Kauffman NK Kauffman Kauffman 1 Beatty(1995), Rosenberg(1994), Brandon(1997), Sober(1997), Mitchell(1997), Elgin(2003), Elgin(2006). 1

2 NK Kauffman (1) (0) N K t+1 K t 1-a [ 1-a] [ 1-b] Kauffman(1995) p.143 N 2 N 1-a N=3,K=2 1-b 1 2 N Kauffman K K=1 2

3 K=N N 2 N/e K 3 K=2 N NK K=2 NK Kauffman K P canalyzing Boolean functions K P NK Kauffman NK K=1 K 3 NK NK Kauffman NK DNA DNA Kauffman 250 3

4 NK Kauffman DNA DNA RNA mrna mrna DNA mrna 1960 Jacob, Monod 3 RNA DNA DNA RNA RNA DNA DNA Monod[1970] Kauffman NK N mrna K K N 2 N N K=2 N N N N 3 4

5 Kauffman K=2 NK * Kauffman(1995) p.205 NK NK N K 4 Kauffman 4 5

6 NK Darwin Fisher 1930 Kauffman NK N [A,a] 2 N n G N G Gi Wi Gl Wl Gm Wm Wm>Wl W W 3 Kauffman(1993), p.42. Kauffman n 6

7 NK Gl K K=N-1 2 N /(N+1) K=0 Fisher Kauffman(1993), p.55 K=0 Kauffman N 2 10 K 5 NK 6 5 Kauffman 6 N=K-1 7

8 Kauffman (1) NK Cf.3 NK Kauffman (2) Cf.2 Kauffman 1995, 2000 Kauffman At home in the universe 1995 Kauffman 8

9 7 8 Beatty(1995) Sterelny(1997) N=1 (N) Kauffman 7 (1) 1km (2) 1km 1km 8 Beatty(1992) Rosenberg(1994) (a) (b) Sober(1997), Elgin(2003) (a) (b) Brandon(1997) Mitchell(1997) 9

10 NK NK N,K,P Kauffman N=80000 K=2 K K * Kauffman NK NK 11? Kauffman AL A-Life 9 K 2 K H H80000 = C * Richardson(1997) NK Burian&Richardson(1992) Kauffman Sober(1997) 10

11 A-Life Langton (Langton 1996, p.39 * ) AL Sober(1992) Searle(1980) AI AI AL Sterelny(1997) N=1 Kauffman NK AL NK NK NK (2000) AL 11

12 12 Kauffman NK N,K,P, Kauffman NK NK 13 Auyang, S. (1998), Foundations of Complex-system Theories, Cambridge University Press. Beatty, J. (1995), The Evolutionary Contingency Thesis', in G. Wolters and J. G. Lennox (eds.), Concepts, Theories, and Rationality in the Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh Press, pp Boden, M. (1996), The Philosophy of Artificial Life, Oxford University Press. Brandon, R. N. (1997), Does Biology Have Laws? The Experimental Evidence', Philosophy of Science, 64(Proceedings): pp.s Burian, R. M. (1997), Comments on Complexity and Experimentation in Biology', Philosophy of Science, 64(Proceedings): pp.s279-s291. Burian, R.M. and Richardson, R.C., (1992), Form and Order in Evolutionary Biology, reprinted in Boden(1996), pp Depew, D.J. and Weber, B.H. (1996), Darwinism Evolving, The MIT Press. Elgin, M. (2003), Biology and a Priori Laws', Philosophy of Science, 70: pp Langton AL ( ) Cf. Pattee 1996 Kauffman NK 13 Kauffman(2003) 12

13 Fisher, R. A. (1930), The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Oxford University Press. Gould, S. J. (1989), Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History, W. W. Norton & Company, Kauffman, S.(1993), The Origins of Order, Oxford University Press (1995), At Home in the Universe, Oxford University Press, (2000), Investigations, Oxford University Press, (2003), Random Boolean network models and the yeast transcriptional network, PNAS, vol.100, no.25, Langton, C.(1996), Artificial Life', in Boden(1996), pp Mitchell, S. D.(1997), Pragmatic Laws', Philosophy of Science, 64(Proceedings): pp.s468-s479. Monod, J. (1971), Le hazard et la nécessité, Editions du Seuil, Patttee, H. H. (1996), Simulations, Realizations, and Theories of Life', in Boden(1996), pp Richardson, R. C. (1997), Natural and Artificial Complexity', Philosophy of Science, 64(Proceedings): pp.s255-s (2001), Complexity, Self-Organization and Selection', Biology and philosophy 16: pp Rosenberg, A. (1994), Instrumental Biology or the Disunity of Science, University of Chicago Press. Searle, J. (1980), Minds, Brains, and Programs, Behavior and Brain Science, 3: pp Sober, E. (1984), The nature of selection, The University of Chicago Press (1992), Learning from Functionalism - Prospects for Strong Artificial Life', reprinted in Boden(1996), pp (1997), Two Outbreaks of Lawlessness in Recent Philosophy of Biology', Philosophy of Science, 64(Proceedings): pp.s (2000), The philosophy of biology, Westview Press. Sterelny, K. (1997), Universal Biology', British Journal of Philosophy of Science, 48: pp Sterelny, K. and Griffiths, P. E., (1999), Sex and Death, The University of Chicago Press. (2000),, 33-2: pp