LESSON NOTES Intermediate S1 #1 A Hindi Job Interview CONTENTS 2 Hindi 3 English 4 Romanization 5 Vocabulary 6 Sample Sentences 7 Vocabulary Phrase Us

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2 LESSON NOTES Intermediate S1 #1 A Hindi Job Interview CONTENTS 2 Hindi 3 English 4 Romanization 5 Vocabulary 6 Sample Sentences 7 Vocabulary Phrase Usage 9 Grammar 15 Cultural Insight # 1 COPYRIGHT 2016 INNOVATIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

3 HINDI णव : श अ त म अपन ब र म क छ बत अ 2. अ क श : ज म र न म अ क श अव थ ह, म अ सनस ल क ब श द 3. अ क श : म न ह ल ह म ज एशन क पल ट कय ह, अ र म झ र ट र ट अ र स व स म न जम ट म दलच प ह 4. अ क श : पछल एक स ल स म यह एक ल ज र ड ट र म प ट ट इम प रस वक क क म करत अ य, जस क रण म झ हक क स व करन क ख स समझ ह 5. णव : ब त अ छ त मन ज एशन कस वषय म क ह? 6. अ क श : अ ज स ह य 7. णव : अ छ अ र त म हम र र ट र ट स ह ज ड न च हत ह? 8. अ क श : अ पक र ट र ट न सफ यह क सबस स अ र स नत जगह म स ह, अ पक ब त वष क सफल इ तह स भ ह 9. अ क श : यह भ चच ह क अ प कम च रय क ख य ल रखत ह, नए कम च रय क अ छ स त य र करत ह, अ र उनक अपन म हनत स अ ग बढ न क म क भ द त ह 10. अ क श : म स खन क अ र अ ग बढ न क अ क रखत CONT'D OVER HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #1 - A HI NDI JOB I NTERVI EW 2

4 1 णव : ब त अ छ हम बलक ल अपन य व कम च रय क सख कर अ छ स त य र करन पस द करत ह अ र यह अ श रखत ह क व भ न स क म कर ENGLISH PRANAV: To start, please tell us about yourself. 2. AKASH: Sure. My name is Akash Avasthi. I am a resident of Asansol. 3. AKASH: I have recently completed my undergraduate studies, and I am interested in working in hotel service and management. 4. AKASH: For the last year, I have been working part time at a luxury brand store as service staff, so I have a good understanding of customer service. 5. PRANAV: Good. What did you study at university? 6. AKASH: English literature. 7. PRANAV: Okay. And why is it that you want to join our restaurant in particular? 8. AKASH: Not only is your restaurant one of the most famous and reputed, it also has a long successful history. 9. AKASH: It is also known that you take good care of your employees, train new entrants well, and allow them opportunities to advance if they work hard. CONT'D OVER HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #1 - A HI NDI JOB I NTERVI EW 3

5 10. AKASH: I am interested in learning and moving forward. 1 PRANAV: Good. We definitely like to train our young staff, and expect that they work with dedication as well. ROMANIZATION PRANAV: suruaat mein apne baare mein kuch bataao. 2. AAKAAS: jii. meraa Naam aakaas avasthii hai, main aasansol kaa baasindaa huun. 3. AAKAAS: main Ne haal hii mein grejuesan kampliit kiyaa hai, aur mujhe restorent aur SarviS mainejment mein DiLcaSpii hai. 4. AAKAAS: pichle ek SaaL Se main yahaan ek Lakzarii braind Stor mein paart taaim parisevak kaa kaam kartaa aayaa huun, jis kaaran mujhe graahak kii Sevaa karne kii khaas Samajh hai. 5. PRANAV: bahut acchaa. TumNe graijuesan kis visay mein kii hai? 6. AAKAAS: angrezii SaahiTya. 7. PRANAV: acchaa. aur Tum hamaare restorent Se hii kyon judnaa caahte ho? 8. AAKAAS: aapkaa restorent Na Sirf yahaan ke SabSe prasiddh aur SammaaNiT jagahon mein Se ek hai, balki aapkaa bahut varson kaa SafaL itihaas bhii hai. CONT'D OVER HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #1 - A HI NDI JOB I NTERVI EW 4

6 9. AAKAAS: yah bhii carcaa hai ki aap karmcaariyon kaa khayaal rakhte hain, Nae karmcaariyon ko acche Se Taiyaar karte hain, aur unko apnii mehnat Se aage barhne kaa maukaa bhii DeTe hain. 10. AAKAAS: main SiikhNe kii aur aage barhne kii aakaanksaa rakhtaa huun. 1 PRANAV: bahut acchaa. ham bilkul apne yuvaa karmcaariyon ko Sikhaakar acche Se Taiyaar karnaa pasand karte hain, aur yah aasaa rakhte hain ki vo bhii Nisthaa Se kaam karen. VOCABULARY Hindi R omanization English C lass Ge nde r श अ त suruaat beginning noun feminine ब श द baasindaa inhabitant noun graduation, used ज एशन graijuesan interchangeably to mean noun undergraduate studies दलच प DiLcaSpii interest, liking noun feminine प रस वक parisevak server, attendant noun masculine हक graahak customer noun masculine reputed, स prasiddha distinguished, famous adjective HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #1 - A HI NDI JOB I NTERVI EW 5

7 स ह य SaahiTya literature noun masculine इ तह स itihaas history, record noun masculine SAMPLE SENTENCES हम ख न म हम श कड व स श अ त करत ह ham khaane mein hamesaa kadve Se suruaat karte hain. अ प क न स र य क ब श द ह? aap kaun Se raajya ke baasindaa hain. Which state are you a resident of? We always start our meals with bitter items. म र भ ई न अपन ज एशन स ट ट फ स क ल ज स क ह mere bhaaii Ne apnii grejuesan SeNt StiifeNS kaulej Se kii hai. म झ प र न इम रत म ब त दलच प ह mujhe puraanii imaaraton mein bahut DiLcaSpii hai. I am very interested in ancient buildings. My brother did his undergraduate studies at St. Stephen's College. इस द क न क प रस वक सब न ल कपड पहन ए ह is DukaaN ke parisevak Sab NiiLe kapde pahne hue hain. All the attendants in this store are dressed in blue uniforms. हक स ब ध ब धन ब त ह मह वप ण ह त ह graahak SambaNDH prabandhan bahut hii mahatvapuurn hotaa hai. Customer relations management is very important वह हक क उ टर पर प स द रह ह vah graahak kaauntar par paise De rahaa hai. The customer is paying at the counter. वह च लक एक हक स ब त कर रह ह vah pracaalak ek graahak Se baat kar rahii hai. The operator is talking to a customer. HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #1 - A HI NDI JOB I NTERVI EW 6

8 प डत र व श कर भ रत य स ग त क ब त ह स सत र व दक थ pandit ravi sankar bhaaratiy SaNgiiT ke bahut hii prasiddh SiTaar vaadak THe. Ravi Shankar was a distinguished Sitar player in Indian music. ह द स ह य म मच द क ब त बड न म ह hindii SaahiTya mein premcand kaa bahut badaa Naam hai. Premchand is an important name in Hindi literature. इ तह स व तव म मह वप ण ह क यह हम हम र अत त क ब र म ज नन म मदद करत ह itihaas vaastav mein mahatvapurn hai kyunki yah humein hamare ateet ke baare mein janane mein madad karta hai म झ भ रत क इ तह स पर कत ब पढ न पस द ह mujhe BHaraT ke itihaas par kitaaben padhna pasand hai I like reading books on the history of India. History is really important because it helps us to learn about our past. VOCABULARY PHRASE USAGE श अ त म ("in the beginning") श अ त suruaat is a noun which means 'beginning', and म mein is a particle, meaning 'in', which follows the noun Together the phrase is "in the beginning" or "at the start." This is the most common way to refer to the start of any process or phenomenon. This can also be used as 'initially', or 'to start off'.श अ त SuruaaT can also be used on its own, as "beginning." It is derived from the word suru which means 'start'. For example: HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #1 - A HI NDI JOB I NTERVI EW 7

9 श अ त म म झ ए पल स टव यर इ त म ल करन म ब त म कल ह त थ suruaat mein mujhe aipal Sauftwair istemaal karne mein bahut muskil hotii THii. "Initially, I used to have a lot of trouble using Apple software." ज एशन करन ("to complete post-secondary studies") ज एशन graijuesan is an English loan word "graduation" and is used in common lingo in Hindi in India, to refer to post-secondary education.करन karnaa is a transitive verb which means "to do." Together ज एशन करन graijuesan karnaa means "to complete undergraduate studies." Even though, literally, it means "to graduate, "it basically means "to complete" or simply, "to do your undergraduate studies." "Graduation" here doesn't only refer to the "graduation ceremony," but refers to the whole process of undergraduate studies to get to the graduation. Traditionally, there are no high school graduation ceremonies in India, and so the term "graduation" has become linked to post-secondary education mainly Bachelor's or undergraduate studies. For example: म र ब ट र च क व व लय स ज एशन कर रह ह Merii betii raancii ke viswavidyaalay Se graijuesan kar rahii hai. "My daughter is doing her undergraduate studies at Ranchi University." म दलच प ह न ("to be interested in") म Mein is a particle which means 'in', and दलच प DiLcaSpii is a noun which means "interest" - describing a more emotional kind of interest, rather than merely intellectual interest. ह न HoNaa is a intransitive verb meaning "to be." Altogether, म दलच प ह न mein DiLcaSpii honaa, means "to have interest in." HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #1 - A HI NDI JOB I NTERVI EW 8

10 दलच प DiLcaSpii can be used to describe a zest for topics close to your heart or even academic interest, so it is something that is more than just a passing interest. For example: अ पक भ च न च न क इ तह स म दलच प ह? kyaa aapko bhii praaciin ciin ke itihaas mein DiLcaSpii hai? "Do you also have a passion for the history of ancient Chinese?" GRAMMAR The Focus of This Lesson is Describing your Interests and Goals In the Active Voice हम बलक ल अपन य व कम च रय क सख कर अ छ स त य र करन पस द करत ह, अ र यह अ श रखत ह क व भ न स क म कर ham bilkul apne yuvaa karmcaariyon ko Sikhaakar acche Se Taiyaar karnaa pasand karte hain, aur yah aasaa rakhte hain ki vo bhii Nisthaa Se kaam kare. "We definitely like to train our young staff, and expect that they work with dedication as welll." In this lesson, we will learn how to: Compare the passive voice and active voice 2. Write sentences in active voice sentence pattern 3. Use vocabulary for talking about interests and goals How to Compare the Passive Voice and Active Voice HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #1 - A HI NDI JOB I NTERVI EW 9

11 In Hindi there are several ways of making a sentence passive. This is most common when talking about likes and dislikes. In this lesson, we focus on the present tense, talking about likes and dislikes in an active voice and using different verb conjugations. When talking about likes and dislikes in Hindi, we usually use the format: 1) I like doing X [pronoun-inflected verb-present continuous form पस द ह ] [mujhe verb-naa pasand hai] For example: "I like singing." (closer to: "Singing is appealing to me") म झ ग न पस द ह mujhe gaanaa pasand hai This is the passive voice. The pronoun is inflected and becomes the subject instead of the object (म झ mujhe "Me" instead of म main "I"). पस द pasand which means "like" is akin to a noun, and the only verb applied is the intransitive ह hai ("is") from ह न honaa ("to be"). The second object, "singing," is in the present continuous form of the verb. The same can be expressed in an active voice, in the simple present tense, where the verb is in the infinitive form, in the following way: 2) I like to do X. [pronoun X verb-infinitive form पस द करत ] [pronoun X verb-infinitive form pasand kartaa huun] For example: HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #1 - A HI NDI JOB I NTERVI EW 10

12 "I like to sing." म ग न पस द करत main gaanaa pasand kartaa huun. Here the object pronoun is active ("I," not "me"), and the main verb is transitive (करन karnaa - "to do"). This type of sentence is better suited to describing your hobbies and interests in formal situations, and for taking a more active tone in describing. The regular way of talking about likes makes the personal pronoun (म main- "I") into the subject (म झ mujhe - "Me"), and so it's a passive way of talking about your likes, even though that is the common way. Switching to the present continuous tense makes the tone more active. Beyond just talking about your likes, this type of sentence is also used to describe your process of working and skills, how you work etc. and is particularly suited to professional situations, where we use the format "I like to do X" to talk about work habits and discipline as well. 2. How to Write Sentences in Present Continuous Tense for "liking." The basic sentence structure is the following: [म X verb-infinitive पस द करत ह ] [main X verb-infinitive pasand kartaa huun] (first-person singular, masculine) [म X verb-infinitive पस द करत ह ] [main X verb-infinitive pasand kartii huun] (first-person singular, feminine) [ "I" + X verb + "like to."] HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #1 - A HI NDI JOB I NTERVI EW 11

13 [हम X verb-infinitive पस द करत ह ] [ham X verb-infinitive pasand karte hain] (first-person plural) [ "We" + X verb + "like to."] पस द pasand: "like" करन karnaa: "to do" huun: "am" (in this case "do" in the first person) The object [X] has to be in the infinitive form for verbs, and if the object is a noun, it has to be paired with a transitive verb in the infinitive form, usually करन karnaa ("to do"). Object is a verb: Verb-infinitive [verb root-naa] 2. Object is a noun: Noun + verb infinitive [noun + verb root-naa] Here are some examples with verb objects: - "To read": पढ न parhnaa - "To write": लखन LikhNaa - "To build/make": बन न banaanaa - "To take/stick": लगन LagNaa Here are some examples with noun-verb objects: - "To exercise": य य म करन vyaayaam karnaa ("do exercise") - "To summarize": स प लखन Sanksep LikhNaa "(write summary") HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #1 - A HI NDI JOB I NTERVI EW 12

14 - "To paint": च बन न citra banaanaa ("make painting") - "To blog": ग लखन blaug LikhNaa ("write blog") - "To serve/to care for": स व करन Sevaa karnaa ("do service") - "To check/inspect": ज च करन jaanc karnaa ("do checking") In many cases, the verb exists on its own, but it's changed to a noun form and combined with the verb करन karnaa. In the examples below, "sewing" or "stitching" स न SiiNaa is an action that is awkward to use in the continuous tense "I like sewing," so we change it to a noun सल ई SiLaai ("sewing/stitching"), used along with करन karnaa (to do), and the sentence changes to "I like to sew/stitch," so it's clear that you are referring to many tasks, not one prolonged action of sewing. Since the infinitive form for verbs in Hindi is the same as the present tense conjugation -- "to do" and "doing" are both करन karnaa -- this distinction has to be made. These are nuances particular to Hindi grammar, and also idiomatic, so you develop an instinct for where it is better to use this over time. - स न SiiNaa ("sewing/stitching") सल ई करन SiLaaii karnaa ("to do sewing/stitching"): "To Sew/Stitch" - द ड न DaudNaa ("running") द ड लग न Daud LagaaNaa ("to go running"): "To run" - खर दन khariidnaa ("buying") खर द र करन kharidaarii karnaa ("to do shopping"): "To shop" - झगड न jhagadnaa ("arguing/fighting") झगड करन jhagdaa karnaa ("to do fighting/ arguing"): "To argue/fight" For example: HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #1 - A HI NDI JOB I NTERVI EW 13

15 म लखन पस द करत main LikhNaa pasand kartii huun. (feminine) "I like to write." 2. म य य म करन पस द करत main vyaayaam karnaa pasand kartaa huun.(masculine) "I like to exercise." (instead of "I like exercising") 3. म डरप क नह ल कन म ख मख झगड करन पस द नह करत main darpok Nahiin huun, LekiN main khamakhaa jhagdaa karnaa pasand Nahiin kartaa. (masculine) "I am not a coward, but I don't like to get into fights unnecessarily." 3. How to Use Vocabulary for Talking About Interests and Goals The following are similar formats and words used for talking about goals and interests. - पस द pasand("like," "taste") For example: म क य श करन स पहल स प ण त स र सच करन पस द करत main karya suru karne Se pahle SampuurnTaa Se riisarc karnaa pasand kartaa huun. (masculine) - "I like to research fully before starting the task." - अ क aakanksaa ("desire," "ambition") For example: म अपन क पन बन न क अ क रखत main apnii kampanii banaane kii aakanksaa rakhtaa huun (masculine)- "I hope to create my own company" (more literally: I nurse the desire of creating my own company). - इ छ icchaa ("wish") For example: पर क ब द अ पक करन क इ छ ह? pariiksaa ke baad aapkii kyaa karne HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #1 - A HI NDI JOB I NTERVI EW 14

16 kii icchaa hai? - "What do you wish to do after your exams?" - क मन kaamnaa ("hope," "prayer") For example: म र हम श स ह वक ल बनन क क मन रह ह merii hamesaa Se hii vakiil banne kii kaamnaa rahii hai. - "I've always wanted to become a lawyer." - इर द iraadaa ("intention") म र इर द प र ट म क ज ड क मज ब त बन न क ह - meraa iraadaa puure tiim ke jod ko mazbuut banaane kaa hai. - "My intention is to make the team bonding stronger." Sample Sentences म लखन पस द करत (feminine) main LikhNaa pasand kartii huun. "I like to write." 2. म य य म करन पस द करत (masculine) main vyaayaam karnaa pasand kartaa huun. "I like to exercise." 3. म डरप क नह ल कन म झ ख मख झगड करन पस द नह main darpok Nahiin huun LekiN mujhe khaamakhaa jhagdaa karnaa pasand Nahiin. "I am not a coward, but I don't like to get into fights unnecessarily." CULTURAL INSIGHT The Education System in India Post-secondary education in India follows the older British system that it was modeled after. HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #1 - A HI NDI JOB I NTERVI EW 15

17 Though there are also universities, and colleges within universities, as a whole, people in India commonly refer to post-secondary education as "college." Being in college or going to college is the same as university in other countries. Generally, Bachelor studies last three years, although in some places, the final two years of high school are combined with a Bachelor's education to make it five years. From high school, students start specializing in particular fields; the Arts, Commerce and Science. The Arts include mostly social sciences and humanities, Commerce is all economics, business and statistics, and Sciences combines the life and medical sciences and engineering. From 10th grade onwards students have to choose one of those fields and study only related subjects. This continues on in their bachelor's studies as well, where students can study and specialize in a subject within their chosen field. Because of this early division, it is generally quite difficult to switch fields later. Those studying History, for example, will not be able to switch to pre-medical studies in university easily. However, it is possible for Engineering graduates to study Business after their Bachelor degree is completed. This has become the new trend among young Indians - to study engineering in during their undergraduate, and then enter an MBA program to go on to work in a multinational company. HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #1 - A HI NDI JOB I NTERVI EW 16

18 LESSON NOTES Intermediate S1 #2 What's Wrong With Your Indian Food? CONTENTS 2 Hindi 2 English 3 Romanization 4 Vocabulary 5 Sample Sentences 6 Vocabulary Phrase Usage 7 Grammar 15 Cultural Insight # 2 COPYRIGHT 2016 INNOVATIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

19 HINDI न न : स नए! भ य हमन यह अ ड र नह कय थ अ पन गलत डश दय ह 2. ट फ : ज? 3. न न : हमन व ज ट रयन प ल व अ ड र कय थ 4. ट फ : म फ क जएग, म अभ सह डश ल कर अ त अ प यह ट भ रखन च ह ग? 5. न न : नह हम सब श क ह र ह, अ र लगत ह इस म म स ह 6. ट फ : म तह दल स म फ च हत म र गलत क लए म फ क जएग, म अभ अ पक सह ख न ल कर द त 7. न न : क ई ब त नह 8. ट फ : अ प क छ अ र भ ल ग? 9. न न : हम ब द म डज ट अ ड र कर ग अभ क लए क फ ह 10. ट फ : ज ज र अ पक व ज प ल व अभ त र त ल कर अ त ENGLISH CONT'D OVER HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #2 - WHAT'S WRONG WI TH YOUR I NDI AN FOOD? 2

20 NAINA: Excuse me! We didn't order this. You've given us the wrong dish. 2. STAFF: Sorry? 3. NAINA: We had ordered vegetarian fried rice. 4. STAFF: I'm very sorry, I will bring the right dish over right away. Would you like to keep this dish too? 5. NAINA: No we are vegetarians, and it looks like this has meat. 6. STAFF: I apologise deeply. I'm very sorry for my mistake, I will bring your food to you right away. 7. NAINA: No problem. 8. STAFF: Would you like something else as well? 9. NAINA: We will order dessert later. It's fine for now. 10. STAFF: Okay. I will bring your vegetarian fried rice over immediately. ROMANIZATION NAINAA: SuNie! bhaiyaa hamne yah aurdar Nahiin kiyaa THaa. aapne galat dis Diyaa hai. 2. STAAF: jii? 3. NAINAA: hamne vejiiteriyan pulaav aurdar kiyaa THaa. CONT'D OVER HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #2 - WHAT'S WRONG WI TH YOUR I NDI AN FOOD? 3

21 4. STAAF: maaf kiijiegaa, main abhii Sahii dis Lekar aataa huun. kyaa aap yah plet bhii rakhnaa caahenge? 5. NAINAA: Nahin ham Sab saakaahaarii hain, aur is mein LagTaa hai maans hai. 6. STAAF: main Tahe DiL Se maafii caahtaa huun. merii galtii ke Lie maaf kiijiegaa, main abhii aapkii Sahii khaanaa Laakar DeTaa huun. 7. NAINAA: koii baat Nahiin. 8. STAAF: aap kyaa kuch aur bhii LeNge? 9. NAINAA: ham baad mein dizart aurdar karenge. abhii ke Lie kaafii hai. 10. STAAF: jii zaruur. aapkaa vej pulaav abhii TuraNT Lekar aataa huun. VOCABULARY Hindi R omanization English C lass Ge nde r गलत galat incorrect, wrong adjective प ल व pulaav fried rice, Pilau, similar to Pilaff proper noun श क ह र saakaahaarii vegetarian adjective म स maans meat noun masculine तह दल स Tahe DiL Se deeply, sincerely phrase गलत galtii mistake noun feminine HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #2 - WHAT'S WRONG WI TH YOUR I NDI AN FOOD? 4

22 त र त TuraNT immediately, right away adverb म फ च हत maafii caahtaa huun I apologize (masculine) phrase SAMPLE SENTENCES म झ लगत ह म गलत ब ग ल कर अ गय mujhe LagTaa hai main galat baig Lekar aa gayii. I think I brought over the wrong bag. म र ज दन पर घर प प ल व बनत ह meere janamdin par ghar pe pulaav bantaa hai. On my birthday they make Indian pilaf at home. क छ श क ह र ल ग ए स ह त ह ज अ ड ख ल त ह kuch saakaahaarii Log aise hote hain jo andaa khaa LeTe hain. म श क ह र Main saakaahaarii huun I am a vegetarian. There are some vegetarians who eat eggs. अ पक म स म य द पस द ह? aako maans mein kyaa zyaadaa pasand hai? Which kind of meat do you like best? म इस ब ढ य त हफ क लए अ पक तह दल स श य द करन च हत main is barhiyaa Tohfe ke Lie aapkaa Tahe DiL Se sukriyaadaa karna caahtaa huun. I want to thank you from the bottom of my heart for this wonderful present. गलत सब स ह त ह galtii Sab Se hotii hai. Everyone makes mistakes. यह ख न त र त बन ज त ह yah khaanaa TuraNT ban jaataa hai. This dish can be prepared quickly. HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #2 - WHAT'S WRONG WI TH YOUR I NDI AN FOOD? 5

23 हम इस गलत क लए अ प स म फ च हत ह ham is galtii ke Lie aap Se maafii caahte hain. We apologize for this mistake. VOCABULARY PHRASE USAGE श क ह र ("vegetarian") saakaahaarii is an adjective which means "vegetarian" (people who do not eat any meat or animal flesh). This word is used to describe both people who don't eat meat, and also food items, that are meant for vegetarians, which don't have any meat ingredients. Culturally in India, saakaahaarii or "vegetarian" as a label meaning that the food does not use any meats, including fish and often also excluding eggs. For example: ग जर त द श म सफ श क ह र ख न व क त ह gujraat prades mein Sirf saakaahaarii khaanaa SwiikriT hai. "Only vegetarian food is allowed in the state of Gujarat." तह दल स ("deeply, sincerely") Tahe DiL Se is a set phrase which means "from the bottom of [pronoun] heart." DiL means "heart" and Se is a particle meaning "from." This phrase is used either in making apologies or thanking sincerely, in formal situations. It's quite a formal phrase to use. The phrase usually follows the subject pronoun and before the object pronoun. For example: HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #2 - WHAT'S WRONG WI TH YOUR I NDI AN FOOD? 6

24 म तह दल स अ पक श य द करत main Tahe DiL Se aapkaa sukriyaadaa kartaa huun. "I thank you from the bottom of my heart." म फ च हत ("I apologize") maafii is a noun that means "forgiveness," and caahtaa is the conjugated form of the verb caahnaa which means "to want." Huun means "am" and is a conjugated form of the verb honaa which means "to be." maafii caahtaa huun altogether means "ask for forgiveness," which is the equivalent of "I am sorry," or "apologize," as in "I apologize." This phrase follows a personal pronoun, and is a polite and common way of asking for an apology. This conjugation is for a male speaker, so a female speaker would say the same phrase as maafii caahtii huun. In the plural it changes to maafii caahte hain. For example: अ पक पर श न क लए म म फ च हत aapkii paresaanii ke Lie main maafii caahtaa huun. "I apologize for bothering you." GRAMMAR The Focus of This Lesson is How to Ask for Apology in Different Situations म फ क जएग, म अभ सह डश ल कर अ त अ प यह ट भ रखन च ह ग? Staaf: maaf kiijiegaa, main abhii Sahii dis Lekar aataa huun. kyaa aap yah plet bhii rakhnaa caahenge? "I'm very sorry, I will bring the right dish over right away. Would you like to keep this dish too?" In this lesson, you will learn how to: HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #2 - WHAT'S WRONG WI TH YOUR I NDI AN FOOD? 7

25 Use polite forms 2. Use familiar forms 3. Emphasize apologies How to Use Polite Forms Hindi has three levels of politeness in speech, and the Polite form is the most respectful form which should be used when speaking with those much older in age, in customer service, and professional environments. The differences for politeness only apply in 2nd person and 3rd person speech, in the pronouns used, and the verb conjugation. You: अ प aap He/She: वह vah OR उन un +marker/particle (उनक unko, उ ह unhe, उ ह न unhone, etc.) The verb करन karnaa ("to do") is conjugated in the present tense imperative as क जए kiijie ("do"). When apologizing in the polite form however, it is not just the pronouns and the conjugations, but also how the sentence is framed, that makes it polite. म फ़ क जए maaf kiijie (gender neutral) "Please forgive [me/us]" ["forgive+ do (polite)"] HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #2 - WHAT'S WRONG WI TH YOUR I NDI AN FOOD? 8

26 Since this means "please forgive," there are no variations in singular/plural or feminine/ masculine. म फ़ च हत ह maafii caahtaa huun (singular masculine) म फ़ च हत ह maafii caahtii huun (singular feminine) म फ़ च हत ह maafii caahte hain (plural) "I/We apologize" ["forgiveness + (I/we) ask"] To go into higher and more formal Hindi, the kind that is associated with older times, the Hindi word " म ksamaa" is used instead of the Urdu word "म फ maafii." म क जए ksamaa kiijie "Please forgive [me/us]." ["forgive + do (polite)"] म च हत ह ksamaa caahtaa huun (singular masculine) म च हत ह ksamaa caahtii huun (singular feminine) HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #2 - WHAT'S WRONG WI TH YOUR I NDI AN FOOD? 9

27 म च हत ह ksamaa caahte hain (plural) "I/We apologize." ["forgiveness + (I/we) ask"] When saying क जए kiijie ("please do"), it is equally common to extend this into क जएग kiijiegaa. As previously covered this form (for example, क जएग kiijiegaa) suggests to do something in your own time or later. When apologizing, it is more refined to say म फ क जएग maaf kiijiegaa because it sounds like you are hopeful that the person will forgive you, whereas म फ क जए maaf kiijie can sound shorter and less kind. In fact, just म फ क जए maaf kiijie can sometimes also be used as a substitute for "excuse me." (For example, म फ क जए म झ यह सह नह लग रह maaf kiijie, mujhe yah Sahii Nahiin Lag rahaa. - "Excuse me, but this doesn't seem right to me.") Instead, this makes the phrase maaf kiijiegaa less of an order and more of a request. In the Familiar Form, the equivalent is karnaa instead of karo or karie. For example: म फ क जए म झ पत नह थ maaf kiijie mujhe pataa Nahiin THaa. "Please forgive me, I didn't know." 2. म फ च हत, ए स द ब र नह ह ग maafii caahtaa huun, aisaa Dobaaaraa Nahiin hogaa. "I apologize, it won't happen again." 2. How to Use Familiar Forms HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #2 - WHAT'S WRONG WI TH YOUR I NDI AN FOOD? 10

28 The familiar form is less formal, and can be used with people known to you, and with people in your age group and of a similar level or position at work. You: त म Tum He/She: वह vah OR उस us+marker/particle The verb करन karnaa ("to do") is conjugated in the present tense imperative as कर karo ("do"). There is also an additional level between polite and familiar, as an exception only for this verb, which is क रए karie ("do"), which can be used. क रए karie is more polite than कर karo, but less than क जए kiijie. म फ़ क रए maaf karie (gender neutral) "Please forgive [me/us]" ["forgive + do(slightly polite)"] म फ क रए maaf karie is more polite than most Familiar level sentences, but not quite as formal as Polite level sentences. म फ कर maaf karo however, is not a great way of saying "please forgive me" or "I'm sorry." The imperative form makes this sentence sound like an order, since it is no longer in the polite forms. In fact, म झ क फ कर mujhe maaf karo has a very different usage. Commonly, it means "spare me" and is used when people are bothering you with something you are not interested in. It's not good to use maaf karo for making apologies. Therefore, just like with क जए kiijie vs क जएग kiijiegaa, instead of karo, we use करन karnaa. म फ करन maaf karnaa sounds like a sincere request, and is the closest equivalent of the English sentence "I'm sorry." म फ़ करन HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #2 - WHAT'S WRONG WI TH YOUR I NDI AN FOOD? 11

29 maaf karnaa (gender neutral) "Forgive [me/us]" = "I'm sorry" ["forgive + do"] Since this means "please forgive," there are no variations in singular/plural or feminine/ masculine. म फ च हत maafii caahtaa huun will stay the same in the Familiar level, though it is slightly formal to use with friends and familiars. Similarly, म ksamaa is too proper and elevated in diction to be used commonly with people familiar to you. For example: म फ क रए, म अ ज अ नह प उ ग maaf karie, main aaj aa Nahiin paaungii. "Please forgive me, I will not be able to make it today." 2. म फ करन म झ नकलन म द र ह गय maaf karnaa mujhe NikaLNe mein Derii ho gayii. "I'm sorry, I got delayed getting out." 3. How to Emphasize Apologies To start, Hindi doesn't have a word like "sorry" that can be said off-hand and simply. Instead, saying sorry requires asking for forgiveness in Hindi. So in most situations you have to say much more to express your apology. For instance, in a formal situation you may want to say "My sincere apologies" or "I apologize deeply and sincerely." The best equivalent of this is: HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #2 - WHAT'S WRONG WI TH YOUR I NDI AN FOOD? 12

30 म तह दल स म फ च हत main Tahe DiL Se maafii caahtaa huun. "I, deeply/sincerely, forgiveness, ask for." तह दल स Tahe DiL Se: "from the bottom of my heart/sincerely" In formal, professional situations, such as with customers, it may be useful to add 'It will never happen again.' म फ क जएग, ए स द ब र नह ह ग maaf kijiegaa, aisaa Dobaaraa Nahiin hogaa. "please forgive, this, again/twice, will not happen]" ए स aisaa: "this/like this" द ब र Dobaaraa: "twice, again" Similarly you also say "I apologize for this error." इस गलत क लए म म फ च हत is galtii ke Lie main maafii caahtaa huun. "this, mistake, for, I, apologize." OR "I apologize for our error." हम र गलत क लए म म फ च हत hamaarii galtii ke Lie main maafii caahtaa huun. "our, mistake, for, I, apologize" This kind of sentence is also good to use with people familiar to you. For instance if your child or pet destroys something of your neighbor's, you can say: HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #2 - WHAT'S WRONG WI TH YOUR I NDI AN FOOD? 13

31 [न म] क गलत क लए म म फ च हत [Pet's name] ke galtii ke Lie main maafii caahtaa huun. "I apologize for [NAME's] mistake." In the less formal, familiar level, usually you show your regret by apologizing, and also trying to estimate how you've inconvenienced the other person. For instance if you physically hurt someone by mistake, bumping into them or stepping on their foot my mistake, you might say: म फ करन, त ह ब त ज र स लग ह ग maaf karnaa, Tumhe bahut zor Se Lagii hogii "forgive, do, you, very, hurt, must be" Similar to: "I'm so sorry, you must be quite hurt." Sometimes this is said as a question: म फ करन त ह ब त स लग ह न? maaf karnaa, Tumhe bahut zor Se Lagii hai Na?" "forgive, do, you, very, hurt, isn't it." Similar to: "I'm so sorry, it hurts a lot, doesn't it?" Similarly, when you make a mistake and want to apologize, it is common to not just say 'sorry', but also acknowledge the trouble caused to the other person. Sample Sentences म तह दल स म फ च हत ए स द ब र बलक ल नह ह ग main Tahe DiL Se maafii caahti huun. aisaa Dobaaraa bilkul Nahiin hogaa. "I apologize sincerely. This will definitely not happen again." HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #2 - WHAT'S WRONG WI TH YOUR I NDI AN FOOD? 14

32 2. म फ क जएग, म झ स नन म गलत ई म इस अभ ठ क करत maaf kiijiegaa, mujhe SuNNe mein galtii huii. main ise abhii thiik kartaa huun. "Forgive me, I didn't hear you right. I will fix this right away." 3. हम इस गलत क लए म फ च हत ह अ पक ई अस वध क लए ब त अफ स स ह ham is galtii ke Lie maafii caahte hain. aapko huii asuvidhaa ke Lie bahut afsos hai. "We apologize for this mistake. We deeply regret your inconvenience." 4. म फ क रए म न अ पक म र प छ द ख नह maaf karie, mainne aapko mere piiche Dekhaa Nahiin! "I'm sorry, I didn't see you there behind me!" 5. म फ करन, त ह य द च ट त नह लग? maaf karna, Tumhe zyaadaa cot To Nahiin Lagii? "I'm sorry, I hope you're not badly hurt?" 6. त ह ब त पर श न ई ह ग, म म फ च हत Tumhe bahut paresaanii huii hogii, main maafii caahtaa huun. "It must have caused you a lot of trouble. I'm very sorry." CULTURAL INSIGHT Vegetarianism in India As you know there are a lot of vegetarians in India, and there is a cultural tradition of vegetarianism. This is more in some regions than others, and different by family as well. As a rule, a lot of upper-caste Hindu families tend to be vegetarian. Many don't eat eggs either, but this is not uniformly followed. Similarly, across Jainism, a lot of people are vegetarians, as are some Buddhists and some are Sikhs. Indian-Muslims, like Muslims around the world, tend to not eat any pork. However in some parts of the country there are people who eat no meat but they eat fish. For instance, in coastal regions like West Bengal, Kerala etc. fish is an important HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #2 - WHAT'S WRONG WI TH YOUR I NDI AN FOOD? 15

33 part of daily cuisine. Generally the meats that people do eat are chicken and goat meat. Curiously, in India, goat meat is called "mutton" a term usually used for lamb meat. Goat meat is eaten on special occasions, weddings, festivals, and so on. HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #2 - WHAT'S WRONG WI TH YOUR I NDI AN FOOD? 16

34 LESSON NOTES Intermediate S1 #3 Make Sure You Don't Get Your Bike Stolen in India! CONTENTS 2 Hindi 3 English 4 Romanization 5 Vocabulary 5 Sample Sentences 6 Vocabulary Phrase Usage 8 Grammar 14 Cultural Insight # 3 COPYRIGHT 2016 INNOVATIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

35 HINDI सम च र-व चक: उ र द श क सह रनप र म व हन च र क घटन अ म लग त र बढ व दख ई द रह ह ह ल ह म एक च र महज त स स क ड म नकल च भ स म टरब इक क ल कर भ ग गय 2. सम च र-व चक: च र क तल श क ज रह ह, ल कन च रअ क बढ त द खकर प लस न ल ग क य न रखन क च त वन द ह 3. न न : ब त ह - अच नक ए स च रय बढ रह ह? 4. अ क श : पत नह, ब क र क पर श न बन गय ह क ल ज म क फ च रय ए स ई ह 5. न न : अ छ? त र पहच न म कस क स थ अ ह ए स? 6. अ क श : ह म र स म एक लड क ह जसक ब इक पछल ह त च र ई थ म र द त, य म, बत रह थ 7. न न : इस क रण त अ जकल बस स ज रह ह? 8. अ क श : ह क छ दन क लए ब इक नह ल रह एक ह त ब इक ह - ख मख उस गव न नह ह 9. न न : कब तक घर म रख ग? CONT'D OVER HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #3 - MAKE S URE YOU DON'T GET YOUR BI KE S TOLEN I N I NDI A! 2

36 10. अ क श : ह तय करन म कल ह पत नह ए स च र हम श रह ग य थ ड समय क ब त ह क छ दन त ज र बद त करन ह ग ENGLISH NEWSREADER: In Uttar Pradesh state's Saharanpur City, incidents of vehicle theft are on the rise. Recently, one thief managed to steal a motorbike with a duplicate key and escape in merely 30 seconds. 2. NEWSREADER: The search for the thief is on, however the police have advised people to be very careful with their vehicles. 3. NAINA: What's going on - why are these thefts on the rise? 4. AKASH: No idea. It's become an unnecessary nuisance. There have been several such incidents at the university. 5. NAINA: Really? Has this happened to someone you know? 6. AKASH: Yeah, there's a boy in my class whose bike was stolen last week. My friend Shyam told me. 7. NAINA: Is that why you are traveling by bus these days? 8. AKASH: Yeah I'm not going to take my bike for a few days. I just have one bike why risk losing it unnecessarily? 9. NAINA: How long do you plan on keeping it at home? CONT'D OVER HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #3 - MAKE S URE YOU DON'T GET YOUR BI KE S TOLEN I N I NDI A! 3

37 10. AKASH: Yes it's hard to decide. I don't know if this is going to continue or if it is just a temporary matter. I'll definitely have to tolerate it for a while at least. ROMANIZATION SAMAACAAR- VAACAK: uttar prades ke SahaaraNpur mein vaahan corii kii ghatnaaon mein LagaaTaar barhaav Dikhaaii De rahaa hai. haal hii mein ek cor mahaj TiiS SekaNd mein NakLii caabhii Se motarbaaik ko Lekar bhaag gayaa. 2. SAMAACAAR- VAACAK: cor kii TaLaas kii jaa rahii hai, LekiN corion ko barhte Dekhkar pulis Ne Logon ko DHyaaN rakhne kii cetaavnii Dii hai. 3. NAINAA: kyaa BaaT hai - acaanak aisii coriyaan kyon barh rahii hain? 4. AAKAAS: paataa Nahiin, bekaar kii paresaanii ban gayii hai. kaulej mein kaafii coriyaan aisii huii hain. 5. NAINAA: acchaa? Tere pahcaan mein kisii ke SaaTH huaa hai kyaa aisaa? 6. AAKAAS: haan mere klaas mein ek Ladkaa hai jiskii baaik picle hafte corii huii THii. meraa DoST syaam bataa rahaa THaa. 7. NAINAA: kyaa is kaaran Tuu aajkal bas Se jaa rahaa hai? 8. AAKAAS: haan kuch DiNon ke Lie baaik Nahiin Le rahaa huun. ek hii To baaik hai - khaamakhaa use gavaanaa Nahiin hai. 9. NAINAA: kab Tak ghar mein rakhoge? CONT'D OVER HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #3 - MAKE S URE YOU DON'T GET YOUR BI KE S TOLEN I N I NDI A! 4

38 10. AAKAAS: haan Tay karnaa muskil hai. pataa Nahiin aise cor hamesaa rahenge yaa THode Samay kii baat hai. kuc DiN To zaruur bardaast karnaa hogaa. VOCABULARY Hindi R omanization English C lass Ge nde r घटन ghatnaa event, incident, phenomenon noun feminine गव न gavaanaa to lose, to be deprived of verb ब क र bekaar unnecessary, rubbish, useless adjective च त वन cetaavnii warning, caution noun noun तल श Talaas inspection, search noun feminine नकल NakLii false, fake adjective महज mahaj mere, only adjective बढ व barhaav rise, increase noun लग त र LagaaTaar continuously, unceasing adjective, adverb ख मख khaamakhaa unnecessarily adverb SAMPLE SENTENCES HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #3 - MAKE S URE YOU DON'T GET YOUR BI KE S TOLEN I N I NDI A! 5

39 कल म र स थ एक अ त घटन ई kal mere SaaTH ek adbhut ghatnaa huii. A strange thing happened to me yesterday. म यह म क नह गव उ ग main yah maukaa Nahiin gavaaungaa. I will not waste this opportunity. अ पन ज म हनत क ह वह ब क र नह ज एग aapne jo mehnat kii hai vah bekaar Nahiin jaaegaa. Your hard work will not be in vain. र डय पर र त प य न स चल न क च त वन द रह ह redio par is raste pe DHyaan Se calaane kii cetaavanii ha The radio is playing a warning to drive carefully. र व अपन च म क ख ज म लग अ ह ravi apne casme ke khoj mein Lagaa huaa hai. Ravi is busy searching for his glasses. इस ब र समस म नकल प ड स ह क म चल न पड ग is baar krismas mein NakLii ped Se hii kaam calaanaa padegaa. This Christmas we'll have to make do with a fake Christmas tree. यह महज स पय क ब त ह - म द द त yah mahaj Sau rupaye kii baat hai - main De DeTii huun. It's only a hundred rupees - I'll just pay it. द शभर म त ल क द म म बढ व ह न क क रण ह? Desbhar mein TeL ke Daam mein barhaav hone kaa kaaran kyaa hai? What is the reason behind the increase in oil prices around the country? द दन स लग त र यह अ व ज स न ई द रह ह Do DiN Se LagaaTaar yah aavaaz SuNaaii De rahii hai. This sound has been on for two days straight. अ प ख मख च त कर रह ह - म हन बलक ल ठ क ह aap khaamakhaa cintaa kar rahe hain - mohan bilkul thiik hai. You have no need to worry - Mohan is completely fine. HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #3 - MAKE S URE YOU DON'T GET YOUR BI KE S TOLEN I N I NDI A! 6

40 VOCABULARY PHRASE USAGE महज - ("mere," "only") mahaj is a special adjective which means "mere" or "only." The word is used right before an amount, such as mahaj ek ghante meaning "a mere hour," or mahaj biis DiN meaning "mere twenty days." This can only be used with amounts and numbers specifically, and always has to precede the number in the sentence. For example: महज प च दन म प ज न प र क म कर दय mahaj paanc DiN mein puujaa Ne puuraa kaam kar Diyaa. "In just five days Pooja completed the task." गव न - ("to lose," "to be deprived of") gavaanaa is a verb which means "to lose," "to miss out on" and also "to be deprived of". The verb is transitive, and is used to say things like maukaa gavaanaa meaning to "lose an opportunity." It can also mean "to waste" such as in vakt gavaanaa, which means "to waste time." The verb is a transitive verb, but it doesn't mean "to lose" intentionally, but is closer to meaning "to allow to have taken away." For instance gavaanaa with an object or a possession, would mean "to lose object" in the sense of '"o allow object to be taken away." For example: उप थत समय क गव न नह च हए upasthit Samay ko gavaanaa Nahiin caahie. "One should not waste the present time." ब क र - ("unnecessary," "waste," "useless") bekaar is an adjective that means "useless," "unnecessary" and "rubbishy." HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #3 - MAKE S URE YOU DON'T GET YOUR BI KE S TOLEN I N I NDI A! 7

41 The word is usually paired with the particles mein or kaa/kii/ke. mein means "in," and together bekaar mein means "in vain" or "unnecessarily." kaa/kii/ke is the possessive particle meaning "of" which is used between bekaar and the noun it would apply to. For example bekaar kii baat means "useless thing" or "useless thing to say." It can also be sometimes used without the possessive particles with the nouns meaning "person," "man," "woman," or something similar. In such an occasion, the meaning can be "unemployed" as well. For instance bekaar aadmii can mean "a jobless person" or "a wastrel." For example: हम ब क र म ल इन म घ ट तक खड रह अ र अ दर प चन स पहल ग ट ब द ह गय ham bekaar mein LaaiN mein ghanto Tak khade rahe aur andar pahuncne Se pahle get band ho gayaa. "We waited in line for hours in vain the gate closed before we could get in." GRAMMAR The Focus of This Lesson is How to Construct Sentences with Multiple Actions and Occurrences उ र द श क सह रनप र म व हन च र क घटन अ म लग त र बढ व दख ई द रह ह ह ल ह म एक च र महज त स स क ड म नकल च भ स म टरब इक क ल कर भ ग गय uttar prades ke SahaaraNpur mein vaahan corii kii ghatnaaon mein LagaaTaar barhaav Dikhaaii De rahaa hai. haal hii mein ek cor mahaj TiiS SekaNd mein NakLii caabhii Se motarbaaik ko Lekar bhaag gayaa. "In Uttar Pradesh state's Saharanpur City, incidents of vehicle theft are on the rise. Recently, one thief managed to steal a motorbike with a duplicate key and escape in a mere 30 seconds." In this lesson, you will learn how to: Link transitive and causal verbs HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #3 - MAKE S URE YOU DON'T GET YOUR BI KE S TOLEN I N I NDI A! 8

42 2. Link a transitive verb to another transitive verb to a causal verb 3. Make a cause, reaction, response verb chain How to Link Transitive and Causal Verbs This format is for making sentences where one action causes the subject to take further actions. The way verbs are joined in Hindi sentences depends on the relation between the actions. For instance, note the difference in the conjugation of the following sentences: म न नह य अ र ख य main Ne Nahaayaa aur khaayaa. "I showered and I ate." 2. म न नह कर ख य main Ne Nahaakar khaayaa. "I ate after showering." In the first sentence, the two verbs are independent of each other: Nahaayaa ("showered") and khaayaa ("ate"). In the second sentence, the second action has to follow the first, so the conjugation is different. The preceding action, Nahaakar ("showering"), is conjugated to show that another action will follow khaayaa ("ate"). The verb conjugation verb-root+kar signifies that another action is going to follow, and is used to show cause. In this lesson we build on this function to create sentences with more verb layers. This is the first part of the chain: Causal action + 1st action. HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #3 - MAKE S URE YOU DON'T GET YOUR BI KE S TOLEN I N I NDI A! 9

43 For example, the clause: "On seeing X happening" There are 2 verbs: "to see," and "to happen." The causal verb, or the root cause verb is 'to happen'. The 1st action verb is 'to see'. The 1st action verb has to be a transitive verb in this sequence, because the reaction to the cause requires a subject (the person/thing acting in response to the cause). This sequence of the chain in Hindi will be: [ Causal verb - 1st verb] If the sentence only has these two verbs, then the conjugation is simple. [Subject - Object - Causal verb - 1st action verb] For example: "I saw the bird fly." The causal verb is "to fly": उढ न urhnaa The 1st action verb is "to see": द खन DekhNaa Subject is "I": म main Object is "the bird": प paksii In this situation the causal verb is conjugated like this: [verb-root+त Te] [उढ़ urh+त Te] HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #3 - MAKE S URE YOU DON'T GET YOUR BI KE S TOLEN I N I NDI A! 10

44 The 1st action verb is in the tense that the sentence is intended to be in this case, past tense: [verb-root+आ aa] [द ख Dekh+आ aa] Since this sentence is in the past tense, we also have to use subject and object markers (न Ne and क ko). म न प क उढ त द ख main Ne paksii ko urhte Dekhaa. The format can be used with other verbs. However, the 1st action verb must be transitive, and there has to be a subject and an object. If there are verb compounds (two verbs working together as one action), the conjugation applies on the second verb, as is normal with verb compounds. For example: सन न क त क ड बत द ख SaNaa Ne kastii ko duubte Dekhaa. "Sana saw the boat sinking." 2. म न अ पक ग त स न main Ne aapko gaate SuNaa. "I heard you singing." 3. ड इवर द सर ग ड क अ त द ख प एग? kyaa draaivar DuuSre gaadii ko aate Dekh paaegaa? "Will the driver be able to see the other car coming?" 2. How to Link a Transitive Verb to Another Transitive Verb to a Causal Intransitive Verb HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #3 - MAKE S URE YOU DON'T GET YOUR BI KE S TOLEN I N I NDI A! 11

45 The full sentence is thus: On seeing X happening, do Y. The causal verb is "happening." This is the second part of the chain: 1st action + 2nd action. For example, the clause "On seeing X, do Y." There are 2 verbs; "to see," and "to do." The 1st action verb is "to see." The 2nd action verb is "to do." Both verbs in this sequence must be transitive, and each verb will be conjugated differently. Previously, the 1st action verb was conjugated in the tense of the sentence, because the sentence ended there. Now that there is an additional second action, the 1st action verb will be conjugated according to previous verb joining rules. This sequence of the chain in Hindi will be: [1st verb - 2nd verb] For example, "On seeing the bird fly, I took a photo." [on seeing, I took a photo]. 1st action verb is "to see": DekhNaa 2nd verb is "to take (photo)": khiincnaa 2nd object is "a photo": foto The 1st action verb is changed to the form for joining verbs: [verb-root+आ kar] [द ख Dekh+आ kar] The 2nd action verb is in the tense that the sentence is intended in in this case, past tense: HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #3 - MAKE S URE YOU DON'T GET YOUR BI KE S TOLEN I N I NDI A! 12

46 [verb-root+आ aa] [द ख khiinc+आ aa] This section of the sentence is thus: द खकर फ ट ख च Dekhkar, foto khiincaa 3. How to Make a Cause, Reaction, Response Verb Chain We can join the 2 parts now. म न प क उढ त द ख main Ne paksii ko urhte Dekhaa. "I saw the bird fly." 2. द खकर फ ट ख च Dekhkar, foto khiincaa "On seeing, took a photo." The full sentence is thus: म न प क उढ़त द खकर फ ट ख च main Ne paksii ko urhte Dekhkar foto khiincaa. "On seeing the bird fly, I took a photo." [subject+marker][object1+marker][causal verb-root-त Te][1st verb-root-करkar][object 2][2nd verb]. The subject does not need to be in the beginning every time. It can be placed after the 1st verb as well, but always before the 2nd verb. प क उढ़त द खकर म न फ ट ख च HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #3 - MAKE S URE YOU DON'T GET YOUR BI KE S TOLEN I N I NDI A! 13

47 aksii ko urhte Dekhkar main Ne foto khiincaa. "On seeing the bird fly, I took a photo." [object1+marker][causal verb-root-त Te][1st verb-root-करkar] [[subject+marker][object 2][2nd verb]. This same structure can be duplicated in all such sentences, adapted to different tenses, gender and politeness level. Sample Sentences घ ट बजत स नकर म च क गय ghantii bajte SuNkar main caunk gayaa. "I jumped on hearing the bell ring." 2. भ ड बढ त द खकर अ र ल ग अ गए bhiid barhte Dekhkar aur Log aa gae. "On seeing the crowd gather, more people came over.' 3. प न क उबलत द खकर र व न उस म च य प ड ल paanii ko ubalte Dekhkar ravi Ne us mein caay pattii daalii. "On seeing the water boiling, Ravi added in tea leaves." CULTURAL INSIGHT TV News in India News on Indian television and papers can be broadly divided into 2 categories: regional and national. This division is not just by reach and scope, but most importantly by language. India has around 26 officially recognized languages, and each region retains its linguistic tradition. HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #3 - MAKE S URE YOU DON'T GET YOUR BI KE S TOLEN I N I NDI A! 14

48 In reality the only language that travels across the country, to those who are literate and educated, is English. Thus, national news and newspapers are in English. There are also some national channels that function in Hindi, but these are not accessible to people in parts of the country where they don't speak or learn Hindi. Hindi is the most populous language in India constituting the largest minority in linguistic population of native speakers (when you combine all the dialects of Hindi, and similar scripts). HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #3 - MAKE S URE YOU DON'T GET YOUR BI KE S TOLEN I N I NDI A! 15

49 LESSON NOTES Intermediate S1 #4 Making Way for Progress in India CONTENTS 2 Hindi 3 English 4 Romanization 5 Vocabulary 6 Sample Sentences 7 Vocabulary Phrase Usage 8 Grammar 17 Cultural Insight # 4 COPYRIGHT 2016 INNOVATIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

50 HINDI करन : स न ह क यह ईअ वर बन न व ल ह 2. सपन : ह उसक ल कर क फ व द वव द चल रह ह इस इल क क ब श द, ख सकर अप ट म ट घर क नव स, ए स नह च हत क उ ह श र स द त ह सकत ह 3. करन : अ छ? ल कन ईअ वर क बनन स त शहर क अ धक ट फक ज म स सबक थ ड र हत मल ग 4. सपन : बलक ल इस शहर क र त क ह लत ब हद बगड गय ह अ र त अ र यह अ ब द बढ रह ह, व हन क उपय ग भ बढ रह ह 5. सपन : इस सम य क ब त पहल ह स ध रन च हए थ 6. करन : शहर क द सर अ र तक ज न क लए द -त न घ ट ट फक ज म म र ज बत न त अ नव य ह गय ह ब त स र ईअ वर बनत ह त ज क थ ड उ त ह त ह 7. सपन : ठ क ठ क ल कन अप ट म ट क इतन कर ब लग ए ग त ब शक नव सअ क अस वध त ह ग उनक नज र स भ सह ह 8. करन : ल कन हर ईअ वर ज ट म ए स ब ध अ य त ईअ वर बनन स रह CONT'D OVER HI NDI POD10COM I NTERMEDI ATE S 1 #4 - MAKI NG WAY FOR PROGRES S I N I NDI A 2